Somali are an East Cushitic ethnic group belonging to the Cushitic peoples native to Greater Somalia who share a common Somali ancestry, culture and history. Somali language is the shared mother tongue of the ethnic Somalis, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic (formerly Hamito-Semitic) family, and are predominately Sunni Muslim which is their historical religion. They form one of the largest ethnic groups in the African continent, as well as covering the most expansive landmass by a single ethnic group in Africa.
According to most scholars, the ancient Land of Punt and its native inhabitants formed part of the ethnogenesis of the Somali people. An ancient historical kingdom where a great portion of their cultural traditions and ancestry has been said to derive from. Somalis share many historical and cultural traits with other Cushitic peoples, and especially with Lowland East Cushitic people, specifically Afar and Saho.
In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have been ancestral to the Automoli or ancient Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia. They were reputed for their longevity and wealth, and were said to be the “tallest and handsomest of all men”. The Macrobians were warrior herders and seafarers. According to Herodotus’ account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II, upon his conquest of Egypt (525 BC), sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission. The Macrobian ruler, who was elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country; but until then, they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire.The Macrobians were a regional power reputed for their advanced architecture and gold wealth, which was so plentiful that they shackled their prisoners in golden chains.
In 1969, Somalia and Turkey were among the founding members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
Turkey originally maintained an embassy in Mogadishu, Somalia’s capital, until the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991. It subsequently discontinued operations due to security reasons.
Over the ensuing interim period, the Turkish authorities continued relations with Somalia’s newly established Transitional National Government and its successor the Transitional Federal Government through their non-resident diplomatic mission in Addis Ababa.
Following a greatly improved security situation in Mogadishu in mid-2011, and a visit by then Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (the first by a non-African leader since George H. W. Bush’s visit during New Year 1993), the Turkish government re-opened its foreign embassy with the intention of more effectively assisting in the post-conflict development process. It was among the first foreign administrations to resume formal diplomatic relations with Somalia after the civil war.
The Federal Government of Somalia was later established on August 20, 2012, representing the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the conflict. The following month, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected as the new government’s first President. The election was welcomed by the Turkish authorities, who re-affirmed Turkey’s continued support for Somalia’s government, its territorial integrity and sovereignty.